The Trump Solar Wall

Donald Trump spoke to his supporters this week (21st June 2017),  once again saying that he would build a wall on the US-Mexico border, but that he had a new idea.

He would build it with solar panels, so it would create energy and it would pay for itself.

The President took credit for the idea, saying “Pretty good imagination, right? Good? My idea.”

Well, the idea has been around for a while before that. Jigar Shah wrote a detailed article on 3rd January 2017 analysing the business case for a solar panel covered wall. The full article is here https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/giving-mainstream-media-credit-getting-things-right-solar-jigar-shah.

In a nutshell, the wall would run for 2,000 miles or 3,200 kilometres and be 65 feet or 19.8m high.

Each solar pane is 2 metres high by one metre wide, so you could have 10 stacked on the wall.

As the wall runs for 3,200 kilometres, then you could have 3.2 million panels side by side, or 320 million panels if they were really squeezed together.

At an output of 200W per square metre, you could install 0.64 GW of solar panels on each row. If you had 5 rows, that would be 3.2 GW of output. That would generate around 9.3 GWhs of energy operating 8 hours a day, 365 days a year.

That would collect over $500 million a year at 6 cents per kWh or $20 billion over the 40 year lifetime of the wall.

The cost of the wall is estimated at $12 billion – so the panels could actually pay for the wall to be built.

Jigar Shah’s analysis works it out at 5 GW of panels producing 6.6 GWhs and bringing in nearly $400 million a year or nearly $16 billion over the life of the project.

Putting aside the various concerns about the wall, from what it means to create such a barrier to what it means for the environment and fauna along the border, there appears to be a business case that could finance the project.

What for? The question that uncovers final things.

We often come across situations where something has gone wrong, or an end result is one that we don’t particularly like. We can see something is not right.

For example, a machine may be producing a large number of defective parts, a person may be taking a lot of sick leave or there may be delays in handing over tasks from one person to another.

These indicators are symptoms that something is wrong. In medicine, such a symptom would indicate the presence of a disease. In life and work, it indicates that something is not working right.

If we look at the issue as the resolution of a fault or a problem then one method to fix the problem is to identify the root cause of the problem.

The root cause can be defined as the “basic cause of something”. This is the fundamental reason for why a problem occurs. Root cause analysis (RCA) is a formal method to find root causes and correct them.

The steps in RCA are (in essence).

  1. Scope the problem and what you are trying to prevent.
  2. Collect data.
  3. Review the data.
  4. Work out what happened by asking “why” at each stage of the failure.
  5. The root causes are the ones that, when eliminated, will prevent the failure from happening again.

RCA is generally applied to problems in organisations. Factories will use it to understand why something went wrong in a process. The National Health Service (NHS) uses it to find out what went wrong in a patient care situation.

The point about a root cause is that it is a final cause – it does not lead back to something else that caused it in the first place.

This is a philosophical definition. A final cause can be thought of as the end goal of a thing, that for the sake of which a thing is done.

This makes final cause analysis (FCA) useful in looking at situations in general, not just problematical situations.

In RCA, the question to ask is “why?”. Why did X happen. Because of Y. Why did Y happen? Because of Z. Why did Z happen? Because it did. Z is the root cause.

In FCA the question to ask is “what for?” over and over again. Taking an example from the book “How much is enough”, you could ask:

  • What is that bicycle for?
  • To get me to work.
  • What is work for?
  • To make me money.
  • What is money for?
  • To buy me food.
  • What is food for?
  • To keep me alive.
  • What is life for?

Blank stare.

Life is not “for” anything. It just is.

So, from a philosopher’s point of view, before you know what you want from work, you need to know what you want from life, as that is the final cause of why you work.

Perhaps its possible to make better organisations by extending RCA to FCA and asking “what for?” much more.

Airborne Wind Energy

Last night I caught a brief part of a Horizon programme that talked about how a company is using a kite to generate electricity.

The basic principle is that a glider is launched into the air. As it rises it pulls a tether which turns a shaft connected to a generator, which then turns and produces electricity.

The glider is made by a company called Kitemill.

Kitemill started in 2008 and is based in Voss, in Norway. It’s first commercial orders came in 2015, with five Kitemills ordered for a business park which will supply 22 businesses in Lista.

The demonstration model shown in the documentary was producing 2 kW of energy – about enough to power a house while operating. The model is a 2.8 wingspan kite, really a small glider, connected to a 5kW generator.

The company was raising funds to scale up eventually to a 500 kW model but the next stage is to get to a 30 kW model. This model can start working at wind speeds of over 5 m/s and reaches full power at speeds of 12 m/s. It will have a wingspan of 7.5m with four propellors for vertical take off and landing.

While operating, the winch will feed out at around 4 m/s.

This is still small scale new technology, but a very interesting one. It might see greater adoption in the developing world with fewer restrictions on flying machines.

There is a certain attraction to the idea of gliders flying above businesses generating power, if only because we will be able to look up and see them in the sky.

Does Goal Setting work?

I like Brian Tracy. I think that he is a great speaker and his collection of feel-good anecdotes and homilies are inspiring and uplifting.

I think the problem is that they are probably not true.

Let’s take one very simple message. Goal Setting.

In Brian Tracy’s book “Goals” he says “Success is goals and all else is commentary”…”With goals, you fly like an arrow, straight and true to your target”.

The evidence for the efficacy of goal setting often goes back to a Harvard study that was done between 1979 and 1989 where MBA graduates were asked whether they had written goals and plans for their future. 3% said they did, and ten years later that 3% were earning more than the other 97% of graduates all together. The only difference between them was that one group had goals and the other didn’t.

It’s a persuasive argument. There’s just one problem – it’s not true. There is no evidence the study actually took place.

But perhaps that doesn’t matter. It sounds so obviously true that perhaps we don’t need any evidence – it is a self evident statement that goal setting works, surely?

Brian thinks so. In fact, if writing down goals is so good, perhaps we should do it every day. A technique in “Goals” is to get a spiral notebook and write down a list of 10-15 of your most important goals every day. After around 30 days, you will find yourself writing the same goals again and again.

Brian says that once you do this, your life will take off. Everything changes for the positive.

A simpler version of this is where Brian asks audiences to make a list of goals and put it away for a year. After 12 months, when they look at it “it will be as though a magic trick has been performed. In almost every case, eight out of their ten goals will have been accomplished, sometimes in the most remarkable ways.”

It turns out that I kept such a list after reading this advice. From the 3rd of August 2015 to the 10th of September 2015, a little over 30 days, I kept a daily goals list.

I came across this list again in 2017, around a year and a half later. In my case, 2 out of the 10 goals have been achieved. Not quite the promised 80%.

Now, I accept, this is a single data point and not evidence and does not prove anything either way. My personal belief in the efficacy of goal setting as a rational method of operating, however, is ebbing away.

What does appear to work better and is more supported by the evidence is probabilistic reasoning. At any point, we have a range of options we can choose between.

The goal setting method is a PLAN-DO method. We decide what we want and then the universe, in a slightly mysterious sort of way, is obliging enough to move things around so we get it.

The probabilistic approach sets out the various options we have and helps us make choices on the next steps open to us, based to a greater or lesser extent on what we know about how things tend to work out. This is a TEST-AND-LEARN approach.

More on this in another post, but my experience is that this kind of approach seems to be gaining increasing recognition and acceptance. It also appears to result in better and more predictable outcomes.

Circle of competence

James Carville, a one-time strategist for Bill Clinton, said “I used to think if there was reincarnation, I wanted to come back as the president or the pope or a .400 baseball hitter. But now I want to come back as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.”

The financial markets are an interesting cultural phenomenon. Few people understand what they are and it is easy to resent them.

The markets have an attraction of their own, similar to professional sports. There are players, statistics and activity. There are participants, observers and commentators. There are facilitators, advisors and con-artists.

Out of all this activity – of people doing their own thing – emerges a river of transactions, deals between people trading commodities, stocks, currencies, bonds, derivatives and increasingly complex products.

All this activity is supposed to make things better, to make us all better off.

Benjamin Graham, the father of value investing, used to say that in the short run a market is like a voting machine, telling you which companies are popular and which ones unpopular on a daily basis.

In the long run, however, the market is a weighing machine, telling you whether a company is good or bad.

Some people say that the market price has all the information you need to know in it, so there is no need to know anything else. In other words, markets are efficient.

Others such as Warren Buffet say that while markets are frequently efficient, it does not follow that they are always efficient. They can sometimes act in a manic-depressive way, pushing down the value of perfectly good companies and sending the values of bad ones sky high.

So how do you make a good decision when faced with markets?

Your options depend on how much you know about the subject you are making a decision about. What is your circle of competence?

If you are inside that circle, then you can take certain risks. If you are outside, perhaps you should protect yourself.

They key to better decision making in financial markets is knowing yourself, knowing the limits of what you know and making decisions about things that lie inside your circle of competence.

The IF-THEN Implementation Plan

We know that we have two brains – two systems. These are (variously) referred to as Hot / Cold or System 1 / System 2.

The Hot system is the limbic system, operated in the amygdala which sits just on top of the brain stem. It is activated by stress and results in your body taking flight or getting ready to fight.

The Cool part of the brain is sited in the pre-frontal cortex. Its stimuli is information and it has the ability for rational, reflective and strategic behaviour. It also has the ability to attenuate stress.

The ability to attenuate stress – to pay attention to the signs of stress and take action to cool it down is an important skill and needs to be learned as early in life as possible.

IF-THEN implementation plans are a way of linking cues to the Hot system and taking attenuating action.

The cue, or trigger has two parts:

  1. A situation
  2. A feeling

A situation can be

  • The time is 5 pm and work has just finished.
  • I’m at the garage and the car needs fuel.
  • I’m at the supermarket doing the weekly shop.

A feeling might be

  • I’m anxious.
  • I’m tired.
  • I’m stressed.

A cue leads eventually to an outcome – It’s five pm and I’m stressed and I walk past a pub so I have a drink that turns into several that then leads to whatever happens when I get drunk.

If you want to interrupt this process, then knowing what you are going to do by default in that situation has been shown to help.

The IF-THEN implementation works like this.

IF (something happens)

THEN (I will do something to distract myself)

In the example above

IF it’s time to go home,

THEN I will take the bus from the stop before the pub so I don’t go past it at all.

This method helps put the Cool system back in charge and override the HOT system, helping you make better choices.

The productivity problem

I was listening to an interview with Seth Godin and he brought up some interesting points about productivity.

First, he defined productivity as:

Productivity is an economic measure of how much you output per hour for the amount of time and resources you put in.

The UK has been talking about a “productivity puzzle” for a number of years. In 2014, the Bank of England said that labour productivity was very weak, around 16% below where it should be.

There are two main hypotheses on why this is the case:

  1. Companies are holding off on firing people because they believe that demand will return, but as there is less demand right now, they are making less per person as a result.
  2. Companies are investing less money into their businesses, meaning that workers are working with old tools and so can do less.

But, I wonder, is this missing the way in which work is changing.

A lot of the work we do now is knowledge work. We can’t build better machines to think better. We just have to start learning how to become more effective at doing the thinking work we need to do.

For many people in the workforce still getting used to digital technology the changes are overwhelming. There is a torrent of stuff coming at them, emails, twitter, video – all kinds of things that just take up time.

We still try and manage the complex work involved in businesses that do knowledge work by having meetings, talking to each other, spending hours moving around in cars to meet people face to face.

How is that productive? While you are doing all that talking and moving, nothing is actually being done that is of any use to anyone.

One company is doing things differently. Automattic runs its billion dollar company with no offices.

From the Business Insider interview with Matt Mullenweg, its CEO and the creator, by the way, of WordPress.

Automattic is a totally distributed company, so everyone works from wherever they are in the world. It could be a coffee shop, it could be their home, it could be a co-working space. We hire people regardless of where they are.

And also

The “Automattic creed” states that communication is the “oxygen” for a distributed company.

Matt’s view is that skill in writing represents clear thinking. If I can become a better writer, perhaps I can become a better thinker.

Perhaps the Automattic way of working is one more companies can learn from.

How to use non-traditional business models in the energy industry.

The world of energy and business are going through interesting transitions.

The growth in renewable energy generation has caused problems for operators of traditional generation such as coal, who have struggled to compete. Nuclear power, on the other hand, has been either faced with policy challenges, such as Germany’s decision to phase out its fleet, or Japan’s decision to turn off its generators following the Fukushima disaster.

Almost every business needs electricity. It is hard to imagine what one could do without any form of power.

And power is the operative word here. For a long time, control of the electricity system was control of power, and the institutions that delivered power had power over the businesses that relied on them. This reality is shifting, especially in the UK, where we are moving from a single source of power to multiple sources. This means that power is shifting from generators to consumers.

The energy industry is becoming customer-centric

Customer centric.png

Previously, you were supplied grid power by the local network and billed by your supplier. There was only one source of power, and it came through the wires connecting you to the local grid.

Now, you have more options. For example, you could generate some of your own power using solar panels. Or you could have a wind turbine. Alternatively, you could still get your power through the grid, but instead of having to negotiate a price with your supplier, you could agree a price with another generator and pay that price instead. Finally, if you are able to control the way in which you use power, then you could benefit from selling that flexibility to people who need it.

Because you have more options, suppliers have to compete for your business as never before. The result of this is that business models in the world of energy are going from linear models, where you have one contract with a supplier, to a customer-centric model, where many suppliers compete to give you multiple options for how you get your energy.

In this scenario, you move from being a consumer of electricity to a consumer of a bundle of power related benefits. It’s a more complicated set of choices, but there is more power in your hands than there was previously.

Suppliers recognise this and are changing the way in which they work. In 2016 E.ON announced that it would split its business into two. 40 GW of fossil-fuel fired and hydro generating assets would be moved to a new company called Uniper, while E.ON would build its business around renewables, energy efficiency and network services. It’s rival, Npower, also announced similar plans.

The energy industry is talking about the need for new business models

People in the industry talk about the need for new ways in which energy businesses need to operate – so called Non Traditional Business Models or NTBMs.

In 2015 Ofgem published a discussion paper to ask how NTBMs could impact the energy system. The responses to this paper suggested that NTBMs could achieve outcomes like:

  • Increase competition.
  • Give more value to consumers.
  • Engage consumers more.
  • Make the system more resilient.
  • Result in lower bills.
  • Reduce environmental impact.
  • Improve the quality of service.

The NTBMs that were suggested, however, were not new. They have been around in some form for a long time. Key issues included more flexible capacity from generation, storage and demand side response and more local generation. The other issues raised around diversity, innovation are a little fuzzy and good consumer protection and service is simply good business.

Ofgem’s definition of a NTBM is:

“Business models offering new products or services, or new ways of delivering these, that are different to those traditionally provided in the existing energy market. Those offering such services have diverse motivations (technological, financial, social and environmental) and ownership arrangements, and operate at various scales.”

This, slightly counter-intuitively, defines a non-traditional business model as one that is not traditionally provided in the existing market. So, it’s not that the model is not well known, it’s just that it hasn’t been tried yet – perhaps because the regulations make it hard or the structure is not understood by consumers yet.

How many business models are out there?

A business is a system. In its simplest form, you can represent a system as something that takes things in, transforms them, puts things out and changes how it does things based on feedback,

System model.png

If a business does this then a business model tries to figure out how to get value from this activity.

There are three key players in this ecosystem: producers, middlemen and consumers. Perhaps the second lot should be called middlepeople if one wants to be politically correct…

Consumers pay for everything. The way in which they pay is the business model. This article in the Harvard Business Review goes into the idea of a business model in more detail and has a number of different definitions.

It seems to me, however, that the way in which consumers pay for something is the essence of a business model.

The same article has a list taken from a book by Mark Johnson called “Seizing the White Space”, where he lists a number of forms of basic business model. This list is shown in the picture below, adapted slightly.

I think you could argue that there is a difference between how you pay and what you pay. The first is more like a model and the second more like a strategy or tactic.

That may be a little pedantic, but the picture shows the first kind in red and the second in green.

Readers may disagree – but the point is that these are some of the standard, and hence traditional models that one can identify in businesses now.

Business models.png

The models are based around the idea of the three players: producers, middlemen and consumers. The main models (in my opinion) then are:

  1. Freemium: Where you get some things for free and have to upgrade for others, like with LinkedIn.
  2. Advertising: Google has possible created this category online but this started a long time ago with newspapers that carried adverts to lower costs to consumers.
  3. Direct sales: Selling direct to consumers – the model that Dell pioneered with computers.
  4. Pay as you go: Pay for what you use based on a rate and metered usage – the standard energy company charging structure.
  5. Product to service: There are terms now like software as a service, data as a service, infrastructure as a service.
  6. Subscription: A popular model for content – magazines have done it this way for a long time.
  7. Royalties: Paying a fee to someone for what they have or for access to who they know.
  8. Brokers: Facilitating transactions between two parties.
  9. Auction: One of the oldest models around – from cattle auctions to Ebay.
  10. Fractionalization: Timeshares to NetJets – making it possible to have shared use of something.
  11. Leasing: Making it possible to use something for a time and then move on without ongoing commitment.
  12. Bartering: Exchanging something of value – for example permission to email you in exchange for useful content or a sample product.

The price strategies on the other hand have to do with trying to work with the costs of the operation. The razor / Kindle strategy used by Gillette and Amazon is to sell products such as a Razor cheaply in order to make money on large numbers of low margin products, such as razor blades or sell products such as the Kindle cheaply to make money on higher margin products such as books. Benefiting from lower costs through economies of scale, standardising products to reduce operating costs and getting paid by consumers before you have to pay suppliers are cash flow and pricing strategies – but are they business models?

Summary – more models that could be used in the energy business

Going back to the HBR article, the one that most applies to the energy business is the Pay as you go model, where you pay for what you use. There is already a lot of innovation in how much you pay, as there is a traded market in the UK and the price you get depends on how you manage your portfolio.

The idea of flexible energy systems through the use of generation, storage, demand side response and more local generation are all technological innovations rather than business models. Batteries have only recently become good enough to consider for grid scale applications. Demand side has become possible through cheaper interconnected equipment and falling networking costs. Local generation is possible through falling costs due to a push globally to create a low carbon economy.

Which means there could actually be a huge amount of potential to apply real NTBMs to the industry.

Take bartering for example. Let’s say you have a site that runs a process that generates waste heat and a site nearby that needs heat but also produces excess electricity. Perhaps there could be a trade there.

Auctions have been used in the energy business before, but perhaps they could become more innovative. Traders already trade energy, but perhaps it might be possible to make it easier for end users to put in bids for energy at certain times.

The response to Ofgem’s paper publishes a number of ideas that came back from energy market participants. They do seem, however, to be relatively traditional still, driven either by technology or a rearrangement of responsibilities between parties. Could any of the models listed above be useful as well?

What is this blockchain thing that people are talking about?

The first few explanations of blockchains that come up when you search for the term seem incredibly complicated.

So, what is it and why should you care? Here are some notes to help.

Blockchain is the technology that makes the virtual currency Bitcoin possible.

It has created the ability for people to create a currency and buy stuff with it without going through a bank, completely bypassing the existing financial system.

For example, if you want to agree a contract with someone, buy a house or just pay for a snack, you are agreeting a transaction with someone else.

To seal the deal, you will have to hand over some money, or sign a piece of paper. That is the evidence the transaction took place.

The records of that transaction are kept in banks, land registries and big paper files. When you want to transfer money or property, you ask the bank to send money or hand over the deed to another person.

The problem starts when record keeping is bad or can be hacked. If you live in a country where land records can’t be found, or can be lost easily, then you could lose your house.

It’s the same with many other transactions: contracts can be faked; bank accounts can be hacked and the amounts modified.

So the key to keeping things safe is recording them in a safe place.

So, if you could take the information that you want to keep safe, create a way of encrypting it so that it can’t be changed, store that in a place where it can’t be deleted and be able to always prove which piece of information is right and which is wrong, then you would have a more secure system.

In essence, this is what Blockchain does. It creates an unbreakable code that is updated with careful rules that mean that information is much safer than before.

Some people think that this will change everything about the way in which we transact with each other, from money to contracts and more.

Others think that this is such a radical change which creates an entirely new way of recording what you own that it could take years to be accepted.

Over 2,000 years ago, people used clay tablets and sticks to record who owned what.

Blockchain pretty much helps do the same thing now.

How is battery storage being used in business and industry?

The launch of the Tesla Powerwall in April 2016 was the start of a rush of interest in battery storage technology.

The Powerwall is a rechargeable lithium ion battery system rated at 6.4 kWh of storage capacity with a 10 year warranty.

It retails at $3,000, with installation costs targeted at $500. A household in the UK uses around 3300 kWh per year or 9 kWh per day.

The Tesla Powerwall should be able to power it at night with its 6.4 kWh of capacity.

Battery storage itself is not new, and Germany has led the way for several years in its renewable energy transition.

As of 2015, 1.5 million photo-voltaic (PV) power plants have been installed in Germany, of which 35,000 are hybrid PV and battery system.

Using a battery increases the amount of electricity used from own-generation from 30% to 60% and 50,000 PV-battery systems could be installed a year by 2020.

Younicos, a Berlin-headquartered, private equity backed energy storage startup built the first commercial battery park in Europe for Wemar AG – the German green utility in 2014. The park has a rated power of 5 MW and a peak capacity of 5 MWh.

It is fully automated, used to stabilize grid frequency and is connected to a 110 kV substation.

The park houses 25,600 lithium-manganese oxide cells guaranteed for 20 years by Samsung SDI.

Younicos’ experience in the chemistry of batteries, the rack systems to store the batteries and on-board Battery Management System (BMS) software at its €15m, multi battery test site helped it become the only system so far to get a 20 year warranty from a major battery producer.

Younicos also has an insurance agreement where a battery will be replaced and 97% of any lost revenue will be protected.

There are 327 projects, making up 869 MW of lithium ion battery storage capacity operating worldwide as of May 2016. In total, there are 921 electro-chemical projects in various stages with a total capacity of 2,708 MW.

The main types of batteries used in energy storage are lead-acid, lithium-ion, sodium sulphur and flow batteries.

Lead-acid batteries are the most widely used rechargeable batteries. They are cheap, respond quickly, don’t lose power while not being used and are efficient.

But they use old technology and perform less well than lithium ion in cold weather. As a result, they are not used much for energy storage applications around the world.

Lithium Ion batteries respond quickly, within milliseconds, are light and efficient.

But they need on-board controls to maximise their lifetime and to operate efficiently. They can be used for grid balancing and frequency response applications.

Sodium-Sulphur batteries hold a lot of energy – they are energy dense, lose virtually no power when standing, non-toxic and recyclable and have a higher capacity than most other technologies.

They run very hot, however, at temperatures of 574 – 624k with molten electrodes which increases their operating and management costs. They can help to match power demand and supply over time.

Vanadium-redox-flow are efficient, can respond quickly, and discharge over more than 24 hours, making them good for long term storage applications.

Control software that can control every generator in a microgrid, from PV to diesel generators will be crucial to optimizing the performance of the system and extending the lifetime of the batteries.

Who is leading the market in grid connected battery solutions?

Clean Technica has a list of 43 battery storage companies to watch. The Energy Storage Association lists members that include names like EdF, Johnson Controls and ABB.

Five companies to watch, according to Chet Lyons, a consultant with over 30 years of experience in commercialising advanced energy solutions and author of Grid-Scale Energy Storage in North America 2013: Applications, Technologies and Suppliers, are:

  • ABB: A global leader in power technology, with a 40MW nickel-cadmium system in operation.
  • AES Energy Storage: Operates 86 MW of energy storage and has the largest fleet of battery storage assets.
  • Convergent Energy Power: Small, but a contender with finance and construction capability
  • EOS: An innovative company getting interest from utilities and a low cost zinc-air energy battery.
  • S&C Electric: Lots pf practical experience for large scale projects and delivering turnkey solutions.
  • SEEO: High energy lithium-ion batteries with backing from VCs like google.org and Khosla Ventures.

The challenge with batteries are storage capacity, cost and how long they take to recharge.

How much do batteries cost?

The cost of battery packs for electric vehicles has fallen from around $1,000 per kWh in 2007 to $410 per kWh by 2014, a reduction of nearly 60%.

The biggest manufacturers can get costs down to $300 per kWh.

Take a look here for a worked model with some of the issues that you might come across.

Examples of proposed and installed battery storage systems

Moosham Community Energy Storage

The “Energy Neighbor” project at Moosham, is a 200 kWh system installed in Spring 2016.

The system has 8 racks, each of which has 13 battery modules with a battery management system and power electronics. Each battery module has 192 battery cells. Each rack has a capacity of 25 kWh, which means the capacity can be increased in 25 kWh steps by adding a rack to the system.

UK Power Network’s Smarter Network Storage

Sheffield University’s demonstrator at Willenhall